Political Culture is a set of attitudes and practices held by people that shape their political behavior. Pakistan is a democratic country in which government derives its power from constitutions. The politics of Pakistan faced huge fluctuations throughout the history due to the loss of right leadership, mistakes of political parties and military invasions. Army has played a major role in Politics of Pakistan. And due to these fluctuations, there are many issues that have to dealt with.
Republican form of Government:
According to the constitution, Pakistan shall be an Islamic Republic. The head of state shall be elected by the parliament in a joint sitting for five years.
President should be the head of state.
He should be a Muslim and selected by Parliament and Provincial Assemblies for a term of 5 years.
He could only be removed by parliament by impeachment for misconduct, Physical or mental disability or for violation of the constitution.
He can Address and Dissolve the Assembly on the advice of Prime Minister, summon the session of Parliament and appoint Governors, Chief Justice, Auditor Generals etc.
Federal form of government:
Pakistan shall be a Federation consisting of the provinces of Sindh, Punjab, N.W.F.P and Balochistan. Islamabad as a Capital Territory and Federal Administered Tribal Areas. Autonomy and Residuary power is given to provinces.
Federal Government provides security for provinces and provinces are bound to follow Federal Government’s decisions.
Parliamentary Form of Government:
The constitution provides for the parliamentary form of Government, both at the Centre and in the Provinces. Both the Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers are held responsible to the National Assemblies. They continue in office as long as they command confidence of the Assemblies. Legislature: The Legislature will be Bicameral. The lower House is called National Assembly, directly elected by the people on the basis of “one man one vote” for a term of 5 years. There are total 344 seats in National Assembly. The voters should have age of at least 18 years. The upper House is called the Senate, elected by the Provincial Assemblies on the basis of proportional representation. It consists of total of 87 members (14 general+5 technocrats from each province+ 8 FATA Judiciary is given independence and can take any step to ensure justice. The president appoints members of Judiciary but president does not have any power to remove them to ensure the independence of judiciary. Judges could hold office till the age of 65 and they have the power to review any judgment or any order made by them.
Supreme court, high courts, Federal Shariat Court etc. are parts of judiciary. Chief Justice is the head.
The constitution grants and protects the fundamental rights of citizens of Pakistan under the umbrella of Judiciary. The rights include the right to life, property, profession, liberty of thought and expression, freedom of association, religion, equality of citizens etc. in case of their violation, the affected person may go to the courts for seeking redress of his grievances.